A Rural-Urban Comparison of the Effectiveness of Think-Pair-Share (TPS) Strategy of Instruction on Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Geography


  • Adebanjo Salmon Adeyinka Department of Language, Arts and Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, NIGERIA
  • Oluranti Mary Ogunbiyi Department of Language, Arts and Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, NIGERIA




Think-Pair-Share (TPS), Student-centered teaching, Academic Achievement, Urban School and Rural School


The study compared the effect of Think-Pair-Share (TPS) strategy on academic achievement of urban and rural Senior Secondary School students in geography in Lagos State, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental design with four research questions and hypotheses was adopted for the study. Mean and standard deviation were employed to analyze and respond to the research questions, and an independent t-test with a significance value of 5% was used to analyze and test the hypotheses that were obtained from the research questions. Data were collected using Think-Pair-Share Geography Achievement Test (TPSGAT) with 50 Multiple Choice Objective Questions. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting the schools and students involved in the study. In all, four senior secondary schools were selected based on location (2 schools from urban and 2 schools from rural areas). In each region, one school served as an experimental group and one as a control group. The experimental groups from both regions (urban and rural areas) were taught through Think-Pair-Share (TPS) while control groups were taught using Conventional Teaching strategy. Findings revealed that schools taught with Think-Pair-Share (TPS) strategy got better academic performance than those taught with conventional teaching strategy in both locations. Also, it was discovered that the performance of rural school students was better compared to that of urban school students with much statistically significant difference when exposed to TPS. The study therefore recommended among others, that: curriculum planners should ensure the inclusion of TPS among recommended strategy for teaching secondary school students of Geography irrespective of school location; curriculum planners should restructure Geography curriculum in such a way that it will accommodate the use of TPS on the school timetable, and that schools should ensure teachers are trained in the application of TPS strategy for teaching-learning processes.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Oluranti Mary Ogunbiyi, Department of Language, Arts and Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, NIGERIA




Abiodun, T.O., Asanre, A. A., Ogundeji, M.A., Odupe, T. A & Rasaki, M. G. (2022). Effect of think-pair-share strategy on student achievement in senior secondary school mathematics. FNAS Journal of Mathematics and Science Education, 3(2), 20-25.

Achor, E., Chianson-Akaa, M., & Ogbaji, E. (2022). Performance of Students of Varied Learning Styles Taught Physics Using Think-Pair-Share Learning Strategy. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 13(1), 27-33.

Adebayo, O. O., Daniel O. O. & Oladipupo, F.C. (2018). Impact of School Location on Academic Performance of Home Economics Students in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination, IJRAR- International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews, 5(2)

Agbede, A & Ba’aba, A.A. (2019). Effects of Jigsaw and Think-Pair-Share Methods on Students’ Academic Performance in Accounting in Colleges of Education in North-East Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Social & Science Education Research. 7(2), 119-132.

Ajaps, S., (2015). Geography Education in the Google age: A Case Study of Nsukka Local Government Area of Nigeria. Second 21st Century Academic Forum Boston, 5(1).

Aremu, A. O. (2012). Development and validation of academic performance 5-Factor Inventory. Ibadan Journal of Educational Studies, 1(2), 321 – 334.

Azlina, N. & Ahmad, N. (2010). CETLs: Supporting Collaborative Activities among Students and Teachers Through the Use of Think- Pair-Share Techniques. International Journal of Computer Science. Issues. 7.

Balogun, I. O. B. (1976). Intellectual and residential correlates of reading achievement in Nigeria secondary school. West African Journal of Education, 20, 245-256.

Considine, G. & Zappala, G. (2002). The influence of social Economic disadvantage in the academic performance of school students in Australia. Journal of Sociology, 38, 127-148

Diyah, R. F., & Wiwiek, I. (2013). The effect of Think-Pair-Share technique on the eighth grade students’ reading comprehension achievement at SMPN 3. Bangsalsari Jember, Pancara, 2 (2), 41-48.

Eze, E. (2021) Why Secondary School Geography Students Perform Poorly in External Examinations, Journal of Geography, 120 (2), 51-60, DOI: 10.1080/00221341.2020.1860114

Fareo, D. O. (2018). Rural and urban differential in teaching and learning geography in senior secondary schools in Gombi Educational Zone of Adamawa State. International Journal of Education and Social Science Research, 1(4).

Federal Ministry of Education (FME) (2004). National Policy on Education (4th Edition). Lagos: NERDC Press

Garrett, T. (2008). Student-Centered and Teacher-Centered Classroom Management: A Case Study of Three Elementary Teachers. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 43, .

Johnson, E. (2013). The Student Centered Classroom: Social Studies and History. 1, p.19.

Khalil, M. S., Sabiu, N. & Muhammed, S. N. (2015). A brief look at geography education in Nigeria: A case study of Kano. Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 1(1), 11 – 18

Lagos State School Census Report (2018). Lagos State Ministry of Education, Lagos

Lagos. (2023, March 21). Wikipedia. Retrieved 08:34, May 6, 2023 from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lagos&oldid=8737985.

Lujan, H., & DiCarlo, S. E. (2005). Too much teaching, not enough learning: what is the solution? Advances in Physiology Education, 30(1), 17-22

Lyman, F. T. (1981). The responsive classroom discussion: The inclusion of all students in Anderson, A (Ed.), Mainstreaming Digest, 109-113.College Park: University of Maryland Press

Macdonald, H. (2004) Geologic Puzzles: Morrison Formation, Starting Point. Retrieved Sept 9, 2022, from https://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/interactive/tpshare.html

Mapesos, R.M.L. (2017) Traditional Approach. Researchgate.com

Moses, A. A. (2019).Understanding the Causes of Students' weak Performance in Geography at the WASSCE and the Implications for School Practices; A Case of Two Senior High Schools in a Rural District of Ghana. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS). III (III), 295-307

Obasi, M.N. (2011). Urban-Rural Differential in Teaching and Learning of Geography in Ahiazu Mbaise and Owerri Municipal Council in IMO State. Environmental Research Journal, 5: 140-148.

Obe, E.O. (2004). Rural/urban and sex difference in scholastic aptitude on primary school finalist in Lagos State. Education and Development, 4(2), 123-134.

Odukoya, O. & Fayemi, M (2019). A Rural-Urban Comparison of Knowledge, Risk- Factors and Preventive Practices for Colorectal Cancer among Adults in Lagos State. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 20(4): 1063–1071. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.4.1063

Okolocha, C.C., & Chukwudi, F.N. (2020). Effect of Think-Pair-Share Instructional Technique on Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement and Retention in Financial Accounting in Abia State, ISJSSR, 3(1).

Owoeye, J.S. & Yara, P.O. (2011). School location and academic achievement of secondary school students in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Kampala International Journal, Kampala, Uganda. 7 (5)

Oyeromi, S. O., Omiyale, G. T., Lato, E.T., Oyebamiji, W. T. (2018). Analysis of Rural/Urban Students’ Academic Performance in Oyo State, Nigeria: Implication for Educational Planners. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), II (VII).

Parker, J. and Asare, I. (2021).Teacher Trainees Perceptions of Think-Pair-Share Technique in Teaching Classification of Living Organisms in Colleges of Education – Ghana. Science Education International. 32(4), 368-373

Radhakrishna, R., Ewing, J., & Chikthimmah, N. (2012). https://www.nactateachers.org/images/Sep12_3_TPS_Think_Pair_and_Share_as_an

Simon, C.A (2013). Strategies guide series differentiating instruction, Urbana Illinois: NCTE publisher

Student-centered learning.( 2023, April 28 ). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:11, April 28, 2023, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Student centered_learning&oldid=1150981300

Tint, S. & Nyunt, E. (2015). Collaborative Learning with Think-Pair -Share Technique. Computer Applications: An International Journal. 2. 1-11. 10.5121/caij.2015.2101.

Uzoma, J. I. & Okoli, J. N. (2019). Effect of think-pair-share instructional strategy on secondary school students’ academic achievement in Biology in Anambra East Local Government Area, Anambra State. UNIZIK Journal of STM Education, 3(1), 64-75

Wuryandani, W & Herwin. (2021).The effect of the think pair share model on learning outcomes of Civics in elementary school students. Cypriot Journal of Educational Science. 16(2), 627-640. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v16i2.5640

Yerigan, Tanya. (2011). Getting Active in The Classroom. Journal of College Teaching & Learning (TLC). 5. 10.19030/tlc.v5i6.1250.

Zeal, A. (2017). Effect of Think Pair Share in Nigeria. https://www.academia.edu/39902879/Effect_of_Think_Pair_Share_in_Nigeria




How to Cite

Adeyinka, A. S. ., & Ogunbiyi, O. M. (2023). A Rural-Urban Comparison of the Effectiveness of Think-Pair-Share (TPS) Strategy of Instruction on Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Geography. CMU Academy Journal of Management and Business Education, 2(1), 25–34. https://doi.org/10.53797/cjmbe.v2i1.4.2023